Internet Protocols

 | General

Domain Name Servers are the Internet’s equivalent of a phone book. They maintain a directory of domain names and translate them to numerical IP addresses. These IP addresses are used to identify and locate the web-servers on the Internet. We are not going to describe the application protocols in detail in this document.

  • This layer sets up the communication between the two hosts and they agree settings such as ‘language’ and size of packets.
  • Furthermore, every host implementation of TCP/IP must be prepared to accept pieces and put them back together.
  • (There can be more than one RCPT command, if there are several recipients.) Finally the data itself is sent.
  • This has led to the “server/client” model of network services.
  • Certainly the ARPAnet is the best-known TCP/IP network.

So we want to be able to use the largest packet size possible. But we also want to be able to handle networks with small limits. First, TCP has the ability to “negotiate” about datagram size.

But if you need to know any details of the technology, you will want to read the standards yourself. Throughout the text, you will find references to the standards, in the form of “RFC” or “IEN” numbers. The final section of this document tells you how to get copies of those standards. The newest book by award-winning author William Stallings, provides a clear and comprehensive survey of computer networks and leading edge Internet technologies. This top down approach is organized in a modular fashion permitting professors or professionals to design a course or plan of study to meet their own needs.


UDP is used by the protocols that handle name lookups , and a number of similar protocols. This makes it easy to watch what is going on and to diagnose problems. For example, the mail program keeps a log of each conversation. If something goes wrong, the log file can simply be mailed to the postmaster. Since it is normal text, he can see what was going on. It also allows a human to interact directly with the mail server, for testing.

A routing protocol is simply a technique for the gateways to find each other, and keep up to date about the best way to get to every network. RFC 1009 contains a review of gateway design and routing. However rip.doc is probably a better introduction to the subject. It contains some tutorial material, and a detailed description of the most commonly-used routing protocol.

18 Server Software

Both TCP and UDP control how packets are prepared for sending across the internet and what happens to them when they are received on the other side. The TCP/IP protocols are a suite of protocols used to support different types of communication between devices over an IP network such as the Internet. Part of an important network protocol called TCP/IP that is used to control data moving through the Internet.

20 IPv6 Addresses

When TCP/IP is used on top of X.25, the X.25 interface breaks the datagrams up into 128-byte packets. This is invisible to IP, because the packets are put back together into a single datagram at the other end before being processed by TCP/IP. So in this case, one IP datagram would be carried by several packets.

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